Mesopotamia or Mesopotamia is a country forced by severe environmental changes to migrate its names, until it became known as the land of the environmental migrant, a name that reflects the magnitude of the catastrophic effects caused by climate change on Iraq.

"Climate change has greatly affected the lives of the population in Iraq, especially in rural areas, where everyone notices the rise in temperatures to more than 50 degrees Celsius, which has led to an increase in drought and desertification in the regions and the migration of most families in the region, which depend on the agricultural crops they produce and thus the emergence of the so-called climate migrant.

Ploughing and planting, the first victims due to the lack of rain, and finally the decline of the Tigris and Euphrates waters due to the dams of Ankara and Tehran, so that Iraq loses more than half of the green spaces that were planted to provide sustenance for its inhabitants.

Speaking to Sky News Arabia, Iraqi Ministry of Agriculture spokesman Mohammed al-Khuzaie said: "This year's winter farming plan for wheat and barley has been affected. Despite the plan to expand the area, there are only 50 percent of the arable areas in Iraq, which has more than 27 million dunums of arable area, but the winter agricultural plan constituted only 8 million dunums."

The problems of the harsh environment ravaging the land of blackness have also had social repercussions, as migration from the countryside to the city has increased the pressure on the infrastructure of cities and reduced employment opportunities for their residents in an unprecedented way.

The indicator of expectations that Iraq will become an uninhabitable land for humans in the coming years rises in light of the government's performance that lacks political and economic pressure to force neighboring countries to increase water releases.

Force majeure restrictions on agricultural water

About 60 percent of farmers in many Iraqi provinces are suffering from reduced cultivated areas and reduced amounts of water used, according to a survey conducted by the NGO Norwegian Refugee Council, which called on authorities to better manage water resources.

A survey conducted by the council revealed that the incomes of some farmers increased in 2023 compared to 2022, attributing this to "higher than estimated" initial rainfall, which led to improved crop rates.

FAO conducted the study in July and August in 4 Iraqi governorates, based on harvest results and the impact of drought on households, and interviewed 1079,40 people. Forty percent of the sample were women, and 94 percent of the respondents were residents of rural areas.

During 2023, "access to water" issues continued to "affect agricultural production," according to the survey, which confirmed that "60 percent of farmers had to cultivate less land or use less water due to extreme weather conditions" in the northern provinces of the country (Nineveh, Kirkuk, Salah al-Din) and in Anbar in the west of the country, AFP reported.

"Of those surveyed in agricultural communities in Nineveh and Kirkuk, 4 out of 5 people have been forced to cut their food spending in the past 12 months," FAO said.

The publication of the study came days before the start of the Conference of the Parties on Climate (COP28), which will be hosted in Dubai from November 30 to December 12.

With the amount of rain receding and temperatures rising, Iraq is suffering from drought for the fourth consecutive year. The Iraqi authorities denounce dams built by Turkey and Iran on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which cause the level of the rivers and their tributaries to drop when they reach Iraq.

However, the Norwegian Refugee Council also blamed the country's "water resources management", especially "irrigation practices in Iraq and inefficient use of dwindling water resources".

"About 70 percent of farmers surveyed" say they "use flood irrigation", a method widely considered "the most water-intensive" and unsuitable for areas "prone to seasonal drought", the report said.

The Norwegian Refugee Council suggested improving agricultural potential by "monitoring, regulating and distributing water resources".

Anthony Zeleki, director of the council's national office, warned that "Iraq's climate is changing faster than people are able to adapt."