With the intensification of the conflict between the army and the Rapid Support Forces, which led to the death of more than 12 thousand people and the displacement of about 10 million from their homes; Demands increased and put pressure on both sides of the fighting. 

3 missed opportunities 

Since last November, the Jeddah Platform negotiations, which were taking place under Saudi-American auspices, have stopped. Reports indicate that the main reason for the faltering of the Jeddah Platform negotiations is due to the failure to implement the commitments announced in the “confidence-building” agreement, the most prominent of which is the arrest of leaders of the Brotherhood regime escaping from prisons. 

The second opportunity is represented by the decisions of the IGAD summits in December and January, which called for a direct meeting between the commanders of the army, Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, and the Rapid Support Forces, Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo. 

The third opportunity is the secret negotiations that reports indicated were held in the Bahraini capital, Manama, during the past weeks, which included 21 items, according to those reports.  

African intervention 

Representatives of African civil society organizations called on the African Union to activate Article 4 of its founding constitution and intervene militarily to stop the war. Amid great fears of more casualties after the significant escalation in the pace of fighting over the past few days. 

Observers suggested that the high-level tripartite committee recently formed by the African Union to resolve the crisis would move to issue a recommendation to the African Peace and Security Council for urgent intervention to stop the increasing violations and the horrific deterioration of the humanitarian conditions in Sudan. 

Article Four of the African Union Constitution stipulates its right to intervene to prevent security deterioration and serious human rights violations in any of the member states. 

The demands of African civil organizations are consistent with IGAD's assertion that it will use all means to reach a solution to the crisis. IGAD approved a mechanism that includes a permanent ceasefire and transforming Khartoum into a demilitarized capital. Deporting the forces of both sides of the fighting to assembly centers 50 kilometers from the capital and deploying African forces to guard strategic institutions. In addition to addressing the humanitarian crisis and starting a political process to resolve the crisis once and for all. 

International support for African intervention

It is expected that the potential African move will receive support from the United States of America. As the US House of Representatives is approaching a draft resolution that stipulates a number of measures to support regional efforts to stop hostilities and explore options to protect civilians from mass atrocities. Empowering them to create a path towards a peaceful and inclusive democratic transition. 

The draft resolution submitted by members of the Republican and Democratic parties also stipulates the appointment of a special presidential envoy to help resolve the current crisis in Sudan. 

According to a statement issued by the Council’s Foreign Affairs Committee, the draft resolution calls on both sides of the war - the army and the Rapid Support Forces, to permanently cease hostilities; Stop attacks on civilians, provide them with freedom of movement, and allow the passage and delivery of humanitarian aid without restrictions.  

The draft resolution calls on the US State Department to strengthen coordination with the Treasury Department to develop a comprehensive sanctions strategy against the leaders of the Rapid Support Forces and the army, perpetrators of violations of international humanitarian law, and those involved in corruption and undermining the democratic transition. 

Possible solution

According to Ashraf Abdel Aziz, editor-in-chief of Al-Jarida newspaper, the great tragedies that resulted from the war, the complete paralysis that affected all aspects of life, the increasing number of casualties due to air and ground bombardment, and the clear escalation in the recent speeches of the commanders of the army and Rapid Support all constitute indications that the situation will move toward favoring the intervention hypothesis. Regional or international. 

Abdulaziz explains, "As the war continues, the disastrous repercussions resulting from it worsen, as famine threatens to kill more than 18 million Sudanese. The suffering of those suffering from chronic diseases also increases in light of the collapse of the health system, as dozens of kidney failure patients die due to the lack of dialysis aids." 

He added, "There is no longer a safe place. Due to clashes and aerial bombardments, displaced people are fleeing shelter camps and from many areas where they took refuge after the outbreak of war."  

Abdulaziz points out that one of the major security concerns is the random distribution of weapons and “placing them in the hands of mobilized individuals and citizens who cannot carry them and have no connection to military action.”  

In the same context; “Since the beginning of the war,” Shihab Taha, a leader in the Forces of Freedom and Change, told Sky News Arabia, “the Jeddah platform was and still is available to both parties if they are actually serious about reaching an agreement that will end the suffering of the Sudanese people.” But it is unfortunate that the two parties are working to narrow the spaces for dialogue.” 

Taha believes that there is confusion and duplication in negotiating behavior. He explains, "We find no justification for the current confusion regarding the efforts aimed at resolving the crisis. Sometimes the army rejects the Jeddah platform and demands that the solution be through the IGAD initiative; then it rejects the IGAD initiative and demands a return to the Jeddah platform."