Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova said Sunday's strikes by Israel could exacerbate tensions in the region, which is already raging over the war in Gaza.
Zakharova added in a statement: "We strongly condemn the recent provocative attack by Israel on an important civilian infrastructure facility in Syria."
"We are convinced that such an abhorrent practice is fraught with very serious consequences, especially in the context of the sharp escalation of the situation in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict zone and the resulting increase in tension in the region."
Russia intervened in the Syrian war in 2015 to support President Bashar al-Assad and also has ties to Israel's other enemies in the region, including Iran and Hamas.
Relations between Russia and Israel have deteriorated since the outbreak of the Gaza war, with Moscow repeatedly highlighting the suffering of Palestinian civilians groaning under Israeli blockade and hosting a delegation of senior Hamas officials.
The Syrian army and a pro-government newspaper said Israeli air strikes on Sunday had taken Damascus airport out of service and forced incoming flights to divert to other destinations.