Alzheimer's disease begins in the brain decades before the first symptoms of memory loss appear.

This was said by neurologist Richard Isaacson, a specialist in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease, writes CNN.

"If doctors can detect the disease early, people will have the opportunity to live a normal life with control of their own modifiable risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes," Isaacson said.

One day, doctors will be able to use vision tests to detect cognitive decline soon after it begins.

"Our study is the first to provide an in-depth analysis of the protein profiles and molecular, cellular, and structural effects of Alzheimer's disease on the human retina, and how they correspond to changes in brain and cognitive function," said researcher Maia.


These changes in the retina are associated with changes in parts of the brain called the entorhinal and temporal cortex, the center of memory, navigation and time perception, she said.

The researchers collected retina and brain tissue samples from 86 donors with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment over 14 years.

This, according to the authors, is the largest group of retinal samples ever studied.

The experts then compared samples from donors with normal cognitive function to those with mild cognitive impairment and donors with late-stage Alzheimer's disease.

A study published in February in the journal Acta Neuropathologica found significant increases in beta-amyloid, a key marker of Alzheimer's disease, in people with both Alzheimer's disease and early cognitive decline.

The study found that microglial cells, which are responsible for repairing and maintaining other cells, including clearing beta-amyloid from the brain and retina, were reduced by 80% in those who had cognitive problems. 

"Inflammatory markers were also found, which may be an equally important marker of disease progression," Isaacson said.

The findings were also evident in people with no or minimal cognitive symptoms, suggesting that these new eye tests may be suitable for early diagnosis.

The researchers found higher numbers of immune cells that tightly surround the beta-amyloid plaques, as well as other cells responsible for inflammation and cell and tissue death.

The experiment showed that tissue atrophy and inflammation in cells at the far periphery of the retina were the most predictive of cognitive status.

"These findings may eventually lead to the development of imaging methods that will allow us to diagnose Alzheimer's disease earlier and more accurately, as well as monitor its progression non-invasively," the specialist noted.

There is an opinion of nutritionists that with age, food increasingly affects a person's health in general and the work of his brain in particular.

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