The year 2023 will be decisive in Russia's


against Ukraine.

Not only the Ukrainian military and politicians speak about it, but also the Russian leadership and Western experts.

BBC journalists compared the versions from different experts, how the fighting will develop.

The deputy director of the Institute for Strategic Studies of Great Britain, Michael Clarke, is sure that in 2023, the fate of Russia's spring offensive will be a key factor.

According to the expert, the continuation of the war has no scenarios until the army of mobilized Russians, which are currently being prepared for the offensive, is defeated.

"Putin has made it clear that he will not stop. And Ukraine has made it clear that it will fight for its life," Clark said.

Military analyst Andrii Piontkovsky is sure that

Ukraine has a chance to restore its territorial integrity next year


However, both the determination of Ukrainians and the desire of the West to supply weapons to Ukraine and finish off the Russian Federation with sanctions must work for this.

"The exact timing of Ukraine's inevitable victory will be determined by the speed with which NATO can adopt a new revolutionary package of offensive weapons," the expert said.

Barbara Zanchetta, an analyst at the Department of Military Studies at King's College London, believes that the prospects for negotiations are bleak.

For a potential peace agreement, the basic demands of at least one side must be changed.

She is sure that the key to the end of the war may lie within Russia, since the price of the so-called "victory" for the Russian elites is too high.

"Unfortunately, it will continue to be a protracted political, economic and military battle of determination. And until the end of 2023, it will most likely continue," the analyst clarified.

Ben Hodges, the former commander of the US Army in Europe, believes that

all the momentum is currently on the side of Ukraine.

She will be able to win the war already in 2023.

"By January, Ukraine can begin the final phase of the campaign to liberate Crimea," Hodges said.

In his opinion,

Ukraine will completely liberate Crimea by the end of the year.

Tel Aviv-based military expert David Handelman believes that the focus should be on what each side in the war wants.

According to him, the Russian Federation wants to completely occupy the Donetsk region.

It will be done by the mobilized forces.

Handelman believes that Ukraine will try to recapture Melitopol in order to cut the land corridor of the Russian Federation to the temporarily occupied Crimea.

"Another option for Ukraine is Svatov — success there would endanger the entire northern flank of the entire Russian front line," the expert believes.

When the war ends

Kyrylo Budanov, the head of the GUR of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine, estimates that the 

war will end by the summer of 


It is about the departure of the Armed Forces of Ukraine to the borders of the state in 1991. 

Budanov also stated that 

the defeat of Russia is already a settled

 issue, although there will be "some more difficult times ahead."

At the same time, Russian President Vladimir 

Putin claimed that the war

 against Ukraine could drag on for a long time.

 The advisor of the President's Office, Oleksiy Arestovych, believes that the

war in Ukraine

is unlikely to end in the next six months, so, taking into account such terms, the hostilities can already be called a protracted conflict.

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