It is true that a multiparty beyond this duality is better in theory and can be judged in practice if it materializes, but the current system based on these two parties has also proven successful. Demands to leave the two-party system feed heavily on the frustration of popular sectors that have been greatly affected by the great economic transformations that the country has undergone over the past few decades, such as globalization, and sometimes on misunderstandings of the way the party system works, as well as politicians who periodically invest, for electoral reasons, in attacking the two-party system as a kind of monopoly of power and decision-making in the context of presenting themselves as a third and new option (none of the experiments to offer such an option have succeeded).
In this context, a new emerging party, formed in 2010, under the title "Without Names", is considering presenting a presidential candidate for a third party to compete with President Joe Biden and his potential Republican opponent, Donald Trump, in the context of an argument made by this party that the American public is tired of "extreme choices left (Democratic Party) and right (Republican Party)." Far from the accuracy of this characterization or not, this party represents the presentation of its candidate and its running in the presidential elections in 2024, a decision that the party has not taken so far. The issue is still a matter of internal debate, a major challenge for the Democratic Party, as it will lead to the loss of the party's candidate, Biden, a lot of votes in a way that could lead to him losing the presidential race to Trump. In other words, instead of the party's stated goal of overcoming America's dominant bipartisanship, its decision will strengthen it by improving the chances of one dominant party winning over another.
But the most important question here is what is the meaning of the bipartisan experience and is it really harmful to the United States as a country? In general, the experiment was useful, as it led to the clarity of ideological and political choices to the public and contributed to the relative ease of decision-making, bearing its consequences, and achieving political stability. On the other hand, there are criticisms of this experiment because it determines voters' choices and may lead to political polarization and weaken the representation of small groups. However, this bipartisanship is not a product of law or constitution but relies mainly on the choices of voters themselves, who tend to trust well-known large parties rather than small parties with no traceable record of governance. The United States is not unique to this bipartisanship, as it is present in other important countries such as Britain, Canada and Australia with some minor differences. It cannot be argued that these states are failures and that their societies suffer from their system of governance.
One reason there are two major parties in America is the country's single-winner electoral system with the highest votes (except for Senate elections, which require two winners for each state with the highest votes). This electoral system contributed to the concentration of votes, the lack of competing candidates, and the reliance on strong parties that can finance electoral campaigns and support their candidates politically and institutionally after their victory because they represent the local expressions of the party's general ideas.
But the most important reason for the existence of the two-party system lies elsewhere in American history and the evolution of the country's political life to the present day: the historical conflict that continues to this day between federalism represented by the state and the localism represented by the state. The Democratic Party generally supports federalism and the Republican Party supports localism. This dispute has a deep historical origin decades ago The founding of the United States as a country in the last third of the eighteenth century, when 13 British colonies, all located on the east coast of the United States bordering the Atlantic Ocean to the east (most importantly Virginia, New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts) decided to declare independence on July 4, 1774, from Britain and form a new country under the name of the United States of America. The reasons for the declaration and the desire for independence were related to the lack of representation of these colonies in the British Parliament despite paying taxes to Britain and the resentment of the economically influential groups in these colonies with the already ineffective British policy that sought to prevent them from expanding westward and seizing the lands of the local "Indian" tribes. This fundamental disagreement quickly emerged over how to manage the affairs of the new country, which was fighting an 8-year war against Britain that the Americans won, with the help of France and Spain - Britain's rivals at the time - in 1783, when America and Britain signed the Treaty of Paris that ended the war and recognized America as an independent state.
This conflict initially revolved around the powers of the central state versus the powers of the different states that formed it. The second trend was initially clearly victorious by enacting the first United States Constitution in 1778 and coming into force in 1781. This constitution recognized that the 13 states were independent and sovereign and that what united them was the "bond of friendship." This constitution did not allow the central government to establish a national army—fearing a powerful and unjust new authority—or to tax or regulate trade between states, nor could any state refuse to enforce laws passed by Congress. But these states, proud of their independence and representative councils, soon discovered that this confederadic arrangement was detrimental to them, contributing to the deterioration of the economic situation of the states themselves while the central government failed to confront armed insurgencies due to their lack of military power. The second constitution, enacted in 1789, represented a major victory for federalists, as the new constitution, which is still in force today, granted many powers to the central government, such as the establishment of the army and navy, taxation, and the management of foreign relations.
The conflict between the "unionists" and the "states" has not disappeared under the new constitution. The first team of the Unionist Party, the first American national party extended in all states, formed in 1798, was led by Alexander Hamilton, one of the founding fathers, a title given to dozens of leaders who signed America's founding documents: the Declaration of Independence and the First and Second Constitutions. This party advocated strong federal power, state intervention in the economy, trade regulation, general taxation, support for industrialization, and close ties with Conservative Britain rather than liberal France. Under George Washington, he was secretary of the treasury from 1789 to 1795, and established the first federal bank with branches in all states from which the federal government borrowed.
In contrast, this party, which dominated politics for more than a decade, was formed in 1792 by Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party, the third U.S. president and served two terms between 1801 and 1809. The purpose of forming this party, which was known by the acronym of the Republican Party, was to oppose the policies adopted by the Unionist Party, and therefore called for freedom of trade and decentralization, that is, more rights and powers for the states at the expense of the federal government, and the adoption of agricultural life, including support for farmers, and close relations with France, which had fierce revolutionary values at the time.
These two parties disintegrated over time for various reasons, but the core values espoused by both remained alive and active even as they took on new representations throughout the life of the country and its political struggles. After many transformations, the representation of these two major currents, unionists and "states", has stabilized in the United States across the two dominant parties today: the Democratic Party, formed in 1828, and the Republican Party, formed in 1854. This hegemony did not come from a vacuum, but from the vitality of these two parties and their keeping pace with the political, social and economic changes in the country, and thus their success in forming their popular bases that are intergenerational and firmly established in public life. Most importantly, each has succeeded in creating a flexible institutional framework that represents their partisan values in a way that allows for a constant renewal of the meaning of these values and their relevance to people's lives, a rare and almost non-existent partisan skill in the Middle East.